Photobiomodulation (PBM) takes advantage of red and near-infrared light to induce therapeutic effects on various kinds of diseases, with transcranial PBM (tPBM) attracting most attention on neurological diseases. Displaying a noninvasive superiority over traditional treatment, tPBM is increasingly studied among research groups. Growing numbers of studies have been conducted in the last decade regarding neurological diseases; however, the research objects and lighting parameters among these papers varied from each other. This article introduces the biophotonics nature of PBM, records the experimental parameters of preclinical studies since 2014 and summarizes the application of tPBM on the neurobiological diseases in the past two decades. Under the summarized guidance of parameter setup, tPBM will be shining light in the prevention and treatment of neurological diseases.