Rationale for 1068 nm photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) as 2 a novel, non-invasive treatment for COVID-19: roles of NO and 3 Hsp70
Researchers from across the world are seeking to develop effective treatments for the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, which arose as a major public health issue in 9 2019, and was declared a pandemic in early 2020. The pro-inflammatory cytokine storm, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiple-organ failure, neurological problems, and thrombosis 11 have all been linked to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) fatalities. 12 The purpose of this review is to explore the rationale for using photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) 13 of the particular wavelength 1068 nm as a therapy for COVID-19, investigating the cellular and 14 molecular mechanisms involved. Our findings illustrate the efficacy of PBMT 1068 nm, through 15 cytoprotection, nitric oxide (NO) release, inflammation changes, improved blood flow and regulation in heat shock proteins (Hsp70). We propose, therefore, that PBMT 1068 is a potential effective 17 and innovative approach for avoiding severe and critical illness in COVID-19 patients, although 18 further clinical evidence is required.